Wednesday, February 28, 2007

Newbies: Choosing a Latin Curriculum

Because of the Internet, there are many, many options to learning Latin via independent study. YMMV (Your mileage may vary).

1. Simplest: Latin Appreciation- If the goal is Latin exposure or appreciation, then many playful and entertaining books like Minimus
or Secundus are available.

2. A Little More- The next very gentle step for Christian students might be Memoria Press books like Prima Latina or Latina Christiana. The positive side is that children are introduced to common Christian Latin sayings like Table Blessings, The Lord's Prayer, or famous lines from the Bible, but the down side is that grammar is de-emphasized, so that students will have to have a more intensive program to become fluent.

3. Serious Learning - Inductive- Good immersive or inductive Latin programs include Cambridge Latin or Ecce Romani. These books start students reading Latin very quickly, but as students progress through the book, they may become more puzzled by why words with the same meaning have so many different's because they weren't instructed about the rules of grammar in the first place. This weakness can be softened by the introduction of Latin grammar on the side (some done in the text), but for our 11 year old, the first 8 chapters of Ecce Romani was about all we could handle, we made a switch to Wheelock to learn the "bones" of the language in more straightforward teaching fashion.

Teacher and student workbooks can definitely enrich grammar learning through Ecce Romani, and there are free online resources to help you learn (we'll add in a later post) at Yahoo Groups, KET, and Cambridge Latin also has many fans; its site has many accessible exercises for practice, and it's even possible to have a Cambridge tutor (UK!) in a new distance learning program (here).

4. Serious Learning - Deductive- For those who think they or their students might pursue Latin for several years, a strong program that provides pronunciation may also be preferred. Because our daughter was preparing to enter a Latin school, we had a good start for her using a DVD series Latin Primer. The DVD really is just like sitting in an elementary school class, and both of our children picked up the chants for verb endings quickly; we did become discouraged, though when we found some errors in the materials, and when we found that the teacher was pronouncing some of words incorrectly.

Many Latin teachers and students debate whether pronunciation is important, but pronouncing it correctly will important for later Latin poetry and macron placement (the line over the long syllables).

Which brings us finally to Wheelock's Latin. We are using Wheelock's now for our 11 year old's study, and with it - the audio CDs for pronunciation, and the student workbook. When we first looked at it 6 months ago, it looked too dry to use. After being baffled by the different forms for words in Ecce Romani, it is now a sight for sore eyes! We also obtained access to the Teacher's site (including answers for the Text and Workbook) by emailing a request to:

It's true that some of the lessons in Wheelock's are a little boring (even though the author tries to add a joke here or there), but we've also been enjoying Latin mottoes via Amo, Amas, Amat, and More, Aesop's Fables in Latin using Esopus Hodies, and Rufus Fear's fabulous Audio course Famous Romans, for history. Like the other major Latin programs, there are many resources to help Wheelock's learners - the main site here:, Dale Grote's Study Guide here, as well as support groups at Yahoo.

There are many more curricula, but these are the ones we're familiar with. A more extensive site with reviews is here

Tuesday, February 27, 2007

Logic Stage: Finding Fallacies

Finding fallacies are a good starting place for learning how to analyze differences of opinion or belief. Are you a little rusty at this? Based on an excellent UNC site (here), we reorganized the information in a handout that can be presented as practice for you or your students: Fallacies 1

The first two pages have brief statements that represent classic argument fallacies. Pages 3-14 have the answers as well as more detailed explanations.

Monday, February 26, 2007

Personalizing Classical Education

Some parents are worried that classical education is too "off the rack" for their children, but there are many opportunities to individualize classical schooling, and you can customize how you present subjects and add in-depth studies for your students.

The link below is to Drew Campbell's Multum Non Multa, from his Latin-Centered Curriculum, and it provides an important caveat for parents and teachers tempted to rush their children through a list of Great Books.

Graduate school students at the University of Chicago may only study 10 Great Books in their Master's year, so don't feel like your 10 year old is falling off the plan if it's not finished by week's end. Some of the lists (1000 Great Books for children age 7-10 etc.) are absolutely overwhelming, and often don't provide any ways to prioritize what to read or how long to study.

When customizing our studies, we considered some of the following:

1. Interests - Special Topics, People, Ideas

Our kids often fell in love with certain subjects, and we allowed them to pursue in-depth studies. Our daughter fell in love with comparative mythology, so we got lots of books from the library and allowed her to do more creative work involving mythological themes. Our son was interested in history and logic, so he had more in-depth learning with Roman rulers and battles, fallacies, and formal coursework in argumentation.

Sometimes children will have strong preferences of people-based learning, while others may prefer the world ideas. Classical learning has plenty of enrichment for both, so a customized curriculum for one children could look very different from another. Highly personal learners would like to hear about Hannibal, Horatius, and Demosthenes, whereas the conceptual-philosophical types might enjoy political theory and disagreement, philosophical rivalries, and cultural clashes.

Some students are precocious thinkers, and the beauty of the classical curricula is that there is no limit to the depth or complexity of learning with this stuff! Don't stick to rigid ideas about the trivium! Many grammar-age children are capable of some dialectical aspects to their education, and higher order thinking will deepen a child's appreciation and enjoyment of a subject's material.

2. Visual vs. Verbal

Some children are more strongly visual or verbal, and an accommodation of these differences might make some of the complexity of ideas or experiences easier to master (and enjoy)in the educational process. For highly visual learners, we like to encourage access to direct sources - real artifacts in museums or grownup books of antiquity with beautiful pictures - give them a taste of the real thing, not just watered down "kid books."

Verbally-gifted children may especially enjoy classical language study and word derivations, or challenging verbal activities - such as the rewriting exercises of the Progymnasmata or the challenge of writing in verse (we'll post some of ours, later!). Many talented verbal thinkers are also good argumentarians, and they may enjoy elementary logic and beginning concepts in rhetoric.

3. Remember the Big Picture

What are your priorities in classical education for your children? Do you want your children to understand the lessons of history? Do you want them to develop their character? Do you want them to be able to defend their faith and know how to make good decisions in the future?

Guide your children to interesting stories, people, or events, and see how they respond. Don't over-schedule. There will be plenty of time for revisiting topics and times. Enjoy leisurely study and reflection, appreciate beautiful arts and verse, and discuss the wisdom or folly of events as they occurred. What do these stories mean to you? Can you see any continuities into the present?

Latin-Centered Curriculum: Multum Non Multa

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Saturday, February 24, 2007

C.S. Lewis on the Reading of Old Books

"It is a good rule, after reading a new book, never to allow yourself another new one till you have read an old one in between. If that is too much for you, you should at least read one old one to every three new ones.

Every age has its own outlook. It is specially good at seeing certain truths and specially liable to make certain mistakes. We all, therefore, need the books that will correct the characteristic mistakes of our own period. And that means the old books."

For C.S. Lewis' entire marvelous introduction to Athanasius, check out the link below.

HT: Jollyblogger: C.S. Lewis on The Reading of Old Books

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What is a Classical Education?

A classical education usually refers to an education founded on the Great Books of Western Civilization, encompassing three stages of education at the K-12 level (grammar, logic, rhetoric), intensive language learning, and moral education.

In the rapidly changing high technology world of the 21st century, many might ask what old educational practices can do to prepare students for tomorrow's Flat World, but classically trained individuals have highly equipped minds that can process, analyze, synthesize, and persuade any subject matter or discipline. The skills of the classically-trained student can be applied to any field or discipline, or to careers that do not exist today.

A classical education often differs dramatically from forms of schooling in the following areas:


Classical education places a strong emphasis on language learning and expression - at the grammar school level, language structure is taught and analyzed in detail. This work lays the groundwork for advanced language understanding and expression, and later it will help students analyzing arguments, resolve and recognize differences of thinking, as well as learn foreign languages. At the earliest stages (grammar), there is an emphasis on learning the nuts and bolts of language (vocabulary, syntax), where as a the logic stage, reasoned language (through speech or writing) becomes the focus. In the rhetoric years, persuasive aspects of language become important, as students learn to appeal to emotions and target their words to specific audiences.

Foreign language study is often a major emphasis of classical educational approaches - and this may mean Latin in the early years, with Greek added in later with the option for Modern Languages. Here foreign language study does much more than translation. It is an important analytical time in the early years, but later does much to help students read between the lines, ask for primary sources, and analyze events and words with in cultural as well as historical contexts.


History is a major emphasis of classical education, but importantly, mastery is not aimed at repeating back the mere facts of history, but on the how's and why's, and who's. If history curricula are not chosen carefully, students can be swept away in the minutiae of dates, places, and names, without the time to consider remarkable people in remarkable times, who made decisions that changed the course of history.

There is substantial evidence that the battle for history education has already been lost in conventional American education. With it, an understanding of the follies and the wisdom of the past, our personal history as a country, and how change was wrought. Classical education is distinctive in the importance it places on putting a personal face on previous historical events, differences of opinion and philosophy, and details about how changes were wrought.

Moral Education

Since ancient times, moral education has been an essential part of education. Education is not simply fact storing, but the cultivation of character and pursuit of truth and virtues. Because of the weight placed on biography and history in classical education, students observe many aspects of human nature, and develop their worldview.

In addition, Mathematics, Science, and the Arts often have very different emphases from other educational schools.

Science - Science in particular has attracted some differences of opinion in regard to its importance in the classical education. There is a natural tension between science and technology and the humanities, as well as between proponents of wholly scientific or religious worldviews. But we do a disservice to our young people if we don't educate students in the details, discoveries, and big pictures of the science that we know now, and the science that we have yet to discover.

Some classical programs emphasize observation and history of science for their curricula. These aspects of the curricula are worthy, but not sufficient in our opinion for a comprehensive education. A strong foundation in science today means a significant foundation in the the detailed facts, theories, and unknowns of science as it exists today. By the time a student finishes high school, she should have a solid framework in the details of biology, chemistry, physics, as well a personal experience with the precision and limitations of scientific recording and the scientific method.


Mathematics is often taught as an ally to logic as students progress through schooling. At the elementary school level, mathematics may be similar to conventional curricula, but more history mathematics may be employed. At the logic and rhetoric stage, classical mathematics programs may place more emphasis on proofs and axiomatic learning, often culminating in a progression through Euclid's Elements. Classical mathematics is more deductive than inducative - at least in the K-12 grades.

The Arts

The arts are often incorporated throughout the curriculum, although different programs vary in their exposure. Fine arts study may mean an art history tour incorporated in history and cultural discussions. Music is also woven into the curriculum, ideally with history, but also as a separate discipline as students learn instruments themselves. Poetry is also especially valued in classical education, and often a part of historical period study. Literature is also carefully chosen in classical curricula to emphasize the Greats of the Western Canon and offer studies of differing worldview and philosophy.

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Thursday, February 22, 2007

Classical Flash from the Past: "Slow in being persuaded of things and sometimes difficult..."

We stumbled on this story and couldn't resist this Flash from the Way-Way Past: "a very obedient and questioning child, although slow in being persuaded of things and sometimes difficult." When an important friend of the family was visiting, the children of the house were playfully asked what they thought about his current (and somewhat questionable) political cause. All of the other children nodded their support, but this young fellow refused to give his approval although the 'friend' dangled him outside a window by his feet and shook him for awhile. Who was this?

This was hero of the Roman Republic Cato the Younger (95 BC–46 BC), as an adult also known for his legendary stubbornness, tenacity, and high morals. According to Plutarch, Pompaedius (the fellow who hung him outside a window) also muttered at the time, "What a blessing for Italy that he is but a child! If he were a man, I believe we should not gain one voice among the people."

Another fascinating detail by Plutarch: "When he (Cato the Younger) began to learn, he proved dull, and slow to apprehend, but of what he once received, his memory was remarkably tenacious. And such in fact, we find generally to be the course of nature; men of fine genius are readily reminded of things, but those who receive with most pains and difficulty, remember best; every new thing they learn, being, as it were, burnt and branded in on their minds."

Plutarch on Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger Wikipedia

Monday, February 19, 2007

Why Study Latin?

Our family is whole-heartedly into Latin, and enjoying every minute of it. Are you still on the fence? Here are some of the potential benefits of a Latin-centered education.

English Understanding and Usage

Latin greatly enriches an English speakers understanding of his or her own language. 60% of English words are based on Latin derivations - so not only are students learning a foreign language, they are also extending their knowledge of their native tongue.

The process of learning Latin teaches students to look more carefully at word roots, similar and different spellings, and families of related words. What's more, linguistic learning through Latin builds a richness of word connotation, that can't be gained from memorizing SAT word lists.

Latin students also learn their language in association with vivid stories and myths, heroic poems, and historical events - so word learning is developed in all its richness of meaning.

Latin students must also learn the "bones" of language construction through its syntax and grammar. This also has a direct impact on helping students express themselves with writing and speaking. English grammar by itself may seem dry and purposelessness, but when coupled with Latin, it takes on a whole different level of importance.

Other Languages

Learning Latin in the early years will greatly ease the learning of Modern languages like Italian, French, or Spanish, because these Modern languages originated from Latin. It also give one a more flexible sense of how languages and cultures developed.

Effects on Development of the Mind

The process of a Latin learn extends beyond memorization because the language requires quite extensive analysis in addition to memorization. As a result, many beneficial cognitive skills come from learning Latin - task persistence, word and visual analysis, organization and sequencing, and flexibility in the application of knowledge. Small wonder that successful Latin students are highly valued for their intellects and ability to master complex new domains.

Our Latin Inheritance and Advantage

When Latin-educated students are compared to age peers, they outperform in the areas of verbal SAT (in 2002, all students: 504; Spanish: 581; Latin: 666), tests of mathematical problem solving, reading achievement, and vocabulary. A Latin-based education nurtures students in the origins of Western civilization and literature, philosophy, law and government, science, the arts and music, and as a result, students see their modern history and experience in the context of our past.


Finally, from a purely aesthetic perspective, many people cherish the time they spent learning Latin because the beauty of the language, the possibility of reading the poems of Ovid or Virgil in their native language, and ancient writings in their original form. Beginners don't have to wait to become fluent speakers to enjoy the sounds and succinctness of beautifully turned phrases - there are many pithy Latin mottoes that are fun to learn for the whole family.

We've looked any many different curricula - and these may vary in their suitability depending on the a student's learning styles or preferences. We'll post our reviews in follow-up post.

Why Study Latin?
Latin Makes a Comeback
The Latin Advantage
Lost Tools of Learning
Latin Maxims
Amo, Amas, Amat, and More

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Monday, February 12, 2007

Habitual Vision of Greatness

"Moral education is impossible apart from the habitual vision of greatness. If we are not great, it does not matter what we do or what is the issue." - Alfred North Whitehead

I loved this point, too in Whitehead's The Aims of Education. As some educational theorists have begun to toy with the idea that brain scans may some day replace human experience as a guide for how best to educate the next generation, we mustn't forget the importance of inspiration as a motivating force for growth and development.

I have been thinking about this a great deal because our kids are pretty contentious (it runs in the family). For instance, recent reading material has included It Seemed Like a Good Idea - Great Historical Fiascoes and How to Lose a Battle: Foolish Plans and Great Military Blunders.

Whitehead suggested a special importance for classical history, and we've found this to be true with our latest forays into ancient history. Whitehead: "The merit of this study in the education of youth is its concreteness, its inspiration to action and the uniform greatness of persons, in their characters and their staging. Their aims were great, their virtues were great, and their vices were great." We recently were riveted by accounts of the bold but moral worm Miltiades - Hero of the Battle of Marathon, but downright vile in day-to-day particulars (e.g. Check out Miltiades at the Baldwin Project's Boy's Book of Battles). We are also thoroughly enjoying Paul Davis' 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present, which seemed like an important counterpoint to the military blunders book.

It is invigorating reading about the epic and heroic, and we have some of those stories to thank for some very penetrating discussions with our children. Greek and Roman history (if at all) should not only consist of mythology... that's certainly I got in school growing up...fortunately, it doesn't seem too late to take up.

ENL Blog: Generation Whatever: From Pessimism to Pragmatic Optimism
ENL Blog: Generation Me vs. Others
ENL Blog: Tweens, Teens, and Satire
The Baldwin Online Children's Literature Project

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Thursday, February 8, 2007

The Aims of Education

I've been enjoying reading Alfred North Whitehead's The Aims of Education (1949), and impressed by its implications today. He had a developmental view of education, and suggested that student instruction change fundamentally at different ages.

Whitehead: "I call the first period of freedom the "stage of Romance," the intermediate period of discipline I call the "stage of Precision," and final period of freedom is the "stage of Generalization."

The Romantic Stage
: " the stage of romance the emphasis must always be on freedom, to allow the child to see for itself and to act for itself...Without the adventure of romance, at best you get inert knowledge without initiative, and at worst you get contempt of ideas--without knowledge."

The Stage of Precision
: Romance should not be dead in the age of precision, but now as students enter their teen years, precise knowledge should become more the emphasis. " be effective in the modern world, you must have a store of definite acquirement of the best practice. To write poetry you must study metre; and to build bridges you must be learned in the strength of material...I am certain that one secret of a successful teacher is that he has formulated quite clearly in his mind what the pupil has got to know in precise fashion. He will then cease from half-hearted attempts of inferior importance. The secret of success is pace, and the secret of pace is concentration. But, in respect to precise knowledge, the watchword is pace, pace,pace. Get your knowledge quickly, and then use it. If you can use it you will retain it."

The Stage of Generalization: "There is here a reaction towards romance. Something definite is now known; aptitudes have been acquired, and general rules and laws are clearly apprehended both in their formulation and detailed exemplification. The pupil now wants to use his new weapons. He is an effective individual, and it is effects that he wants to produce. He relapses into the discursive adventures of the romantic stage, with the advantage that his mind is now a disciplined regiment instad of a rabble. In this sense, education should begin in research and end in research...The stage of generalization is the stage of sheddingdetails in favour of the active application of principles."

Whitehead raises some excellent points.

1. Romance should be an essential ingredient to education, but it should not be its sole ingredient. Students who fail to learn intellectual precision in their thinking and habits of learning and analysis, will exclude themselves from many disciplines and activities that require high-level competency and funds of knowledge. Precision is acquired by essential knowledge, challenging analytical work, mathematical or scientific problem solving, writing to a high standard (redrafting), high-level musical training, and subjects such as logic, computer programming, or Latin.

2. The stage of generalization is usually woefully ignored in the conventional educational process, although it is an critical feature and impelling force for virtually all higher-order intellectual and creative work. BTW, Whitehead mourned the state of affairs at his own institutions: "In my own work at universities I have been much struck by the paralysis of thought induced in pupils by the aimless accumulation of precise knowledge..."

3. We should be wary of standardized tests and their resulting effects on classroom culture if they clash with normal developmental shifts in the emphases of learning or the ultimate aims of education at that time.

Whitehead's model may fit in well with many K-12 classical education (trivium) and liberal arts programs like the International Baccalaureate, but it's a good reminder all the same. When students can cram lots of facts into their heads, the temptation is to give them more. But that is why Whitehead was so vehement about careful pacing of the schoolwork at this stage. Multum non Multa (Not many things, but much). Students at this age need to be allowed time to reflect and critique knowledge, then deeply consider where applications and intersections of ideas exist.

The Aims of Education and Other Essays (Alfred North Whitehead)

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Tuesday, February 6, 2007

The Lost Tools of Learning

We recently discovered Dorothy Sayers' wonderful essay, The Lost Tools of Learning. I had also read Tracy Lee Simmons' Climbing Parnassus earlier in the winter, and it stimulated many reflections about what today's our students are missing in their educational years.

Although her indictments were for another generation, the charges are even heavier for the present times.

Excerpt: "...although we often succeed in teaching our pupils "subjects," we fail lamentably on the whole in teaching them how to think: they learn everything, except the art of learning."

Some targets on Ms. Sayers' radar -

1. Failure to rigorously teach an understanding of language - including its structure and critical analysis, and its use in reasoning and persuasion.
2. The importance of a developmental education - or different strokes for different folks - (is there any reason that conventional U.S. education neglects dialectical thinking?)
3. The virtues of memorizing great literature and poetry
4. The importance of teaching logic and argumentation
5. The importance of giving rhetorical age (high school) learners the opportunity to extrapolate their knowledge in different contexts and discover where their knowledge ends.

Ms. Sayers again: "I am concerned only with the proper training of the mind to encounter and deal with the formidable mass of undigested problems presented to it by the modern world. For the tools of learning are the same, in any and every subject; and the person who knows how to use them will, at any age, get the mastery of a new subject in half the time and with a quarter of the effort expended by the person who has not the tools at his command. To learn six subjects without remembering how they were learnt does nothing to ease the approach to a seventh; to have learnt and remembered the art of learning makes the approach to every subject an open door."

Here in the States, education by committee often means that the educational product agreed upon by multiple tiers of evaluators and experts is a patchwork compromise package. It may be that no one person completely likes the end product, but that it represents the least worst option.

What Sayers argues for is an emphasis on the processes of critical reasoning and learning. It is not rote vs. creative learning, but rather a model that values both. The classical educational model that she defends seems antithetical to the "express yourself" approach to learning that puts heavy emphasis on personal opinion and expression without critique the validity or process by which conclusions were arrived. The beauty of the well-tooled mind is that it can apply itself to any new situation or subject because it knows how to think and learn about anything. Essential prep for thriving in the new millennium.

The Lost Tools of Learning

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Sunday, February 4, 2007

The Education We Never Had

Both of us never grew up with a classical education, but Brock discovered the Great Books in high school, and Fernette after her medical training. Now we are discovering the joys of classical education at an even deeper level as our daughter joined a Latin-based Christian school, and we've embraced a classical education for our homeschooled son.

Our other blog is the Eide Neurolearning Blog, a very different blog, so it seemed like a good idea to collect our classical education links in one place.

I am learning Latin with our kids, our daughter is studying the Middle Ages and Renaissance at school, and our son is studying 1815 to Modern Times using materials from Veritas Press. I'll review them for you in more detail in a subsequent post. We are eclectic, using established secular and Christian curricula as well as child-led interest topics. I haven't seen another blog that does quite what we do, so I thought I might as well make one!

I was a little worried about our daughter's joining a Latin-based school because of the intense memorization, but the chants make it easy, there's plenty of repetition and if all are saying it together, there's not the stress of not knowing when you're called on. Our daughter is also motivated a great deal by her peers, and because her classmates are a generally studious lot, she hasn't complained much about the extra work. She also loves the kids at school.

We are still homeschooling our son because of his dysgraphia and sensory / endurance issues. He has been taking an online secular logic course through Northwestern, but easily transitioned over to classical curricula because of his interest in history and word origins (Latin). We would like to run his homeschooling curriculum roughly in parallel with our daughter's school so he has the option of entering it some time in the future. Our son is solidly in the dialectical stage (loves controversy, reasoning, and fallacies), and his writers block is melting away with Progymnasmata or the ancient exercises devised for budding orators. We'll blog more on those as well.

Previous Latin Sayings of the Week

"Soli deo gloria." - For the glory of God alone.

Christus resurrexit! Vere resurrexit! - Christ is Risen! He is risen, indeed!

"Lex malla, lex nulla." - St. Thomas Aquinas
(A bad law is no law.)

"Cantantes licet usque (minus via laedit) eamus. " - Let us go singing as far as we go: the road will be less tedious.

"Caelitus mihi vires." - My strength is from heaven.

"Magnificat anima mea Dominum, et exsultavit spiritus meus in Deo Salvatore meo" - My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Savior (Luke 1:45)

In Omnibus Ipse Primatum Tenens “That in all things He (Christ) might have the preeminence.” (Colossians 1:16-18)

"Qui bene cantat bis orat." - He who sings well, prays twice - (St Augustine)

"Nos fecisti ad te et inquietum est cor nostrum donec requiescat in te." -
Thou hast made us for Thyself, O Lord, and our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee. (St Augustine)

"Caelitus mihi vires
." - My strength is from heaven.

"Ubi caritas et amor Deus ibi est." - Where there is charity and love, God is there.

"Nisi credideritis, non intelligetis ."

Unless you will have believed, you will not understand. - St Augustine

"Deo vindice" - With God as Protector

"Credite amori vera dicenti." - Believe love speaking the truth. (St. Jerome)

De vitiis nostris scalam nobis facimus, si vitia ipsa calcamus." - If we tread our vices under feet, we make them a ladder to rise to higher things. (St. Augustine)

Dei gratia - By the grace of God

Verbum Domini Manet in Aeternum. - The Word of the Lord Endures Forever.

"Est autem fides credere quod nondum vides; cuius fidei merces est videre quod credis." - Faith is to believe what you do not see; the reward of this faith is to see what you believe. (St. Augustine)

"Deo iuvante" - with God's help

"Ut In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus." - That God may be glorified in all things

"Pax vobiscum." Peace be with you.

"Jubilate Deo." Be joyful in the Lord.

"Ille vir, haud magna cum re, sed plenus fidei." He is a man, not of ample means, but full of good faith.

"Facit enim mihi magna qui potens est." - For He that is mighty does to me great things.

"Oremus semper pro invicem." - Let us ever pray for each other.

"Distrahit animum librorum multitudo." - Seneca
A multitude of books distracts the mind.

"Nullam est nunc dictum, quod sit non dictum prius." - Terence
There is nothing said now, that has not been said before.

"Nosce te ipsum." - Plato
Know thyself.

"Non mihi, non tibi, sed nobis" - Not for you, not for me, but for us.

"Primum non nocere." - First, do no harm (Hippocrates)

"Est autem fides credere quod nondum vides; cuius fidei merces est videre quod credis." - Faith is to believe what you do not see; the reward of this faith is to see what you believe. (St. Augustine)

"Deo iuvante" - with God's help

"Ut In Omnibus Glorificetur Deus." - That God may be glorified in all things

"Pax vobiscum." Peace be with you.

"Jubilate Deo." Be joyful in the Lord.

"Ille vir, haud magna cum re, sed plenus fidei." He is a man, not of ample means, but full of good faith.

"Facit enim mihi magna qui potens est." - For He that is mighty does to me great things.

"Oremus semper pro invicem." - Let us ever pray for each other.

"Distrahit animum librorum multitudo." - Seneca
A multitude of books distracts the mind.

"Nullam est nunc dictum, quod sit non dictum prius." - Terence
There is nothing said now, that has not been said before.

"Nosce te ipsum." - Plato
Know thyself.

"Non mihi, non tibi, sed nobis" - Not for you, not for me, but for us.

"Primum non nocere." - First, do no harm (Hippocrates)

"Dei plena sunt omnia." - Cicero (All things are full of God.)